Please check out this preprint manuscript on BioRxiv
A major gap for malaria elimination toolkit for Plasmodium vivax malaria is the identification of individuals carrying arrested liver stages, called hypnozoites.
Frequently relapsing hypnozoites are key to P. vivax persistence. Whilst hypnozoites cannot be directly detected, individuals who have had recent exposure to P. vivax and have not been treated are likely to harbor these parasites.
By measuring IgG antibody responses to over 300 P. vivax proteins, a panel of serological markers capable of detecting exposure to P. vivax infections in the prior 9-month period was identified and validated. Using antibody responses to 8 P. vivax proteins, 80% sensitivity and specificity for detecting recent infections were achieved in three independent studies conducted in Thailand, Brazil and the Solomon Islands.
As these individuals have a high likelihood of harboring hypnozoites, the suite of these 8 antibody responses can serve as biomarkers for the identification of individuals who should be targeted for treatment with liver-stage drugs such as primaquine and tafenoquine in mass drug administration programs aimed at controlling and eliminating P. vivax malaria.